He distinguished between objects that are naturally good, which excite personal or selfish pleasure, and those that are morally good, which are advantageous to all persons affected. InPierre Bayle asserted that religion "is neither necessary nor sufficient for morality". This would presuppose that Plato had not only a clear notion of the nature of the different virtues, but also a positive conception of the good life as such.
This is partly an inheritance from Schopenhauer, who thought any system of constructive ethical thought a delusion. That is, one might argue that if the motive for being moral on Divine Command Theory is to merely avoid punishment and perhaps gain eternal bliss, then this is less than ideal as an account of moral motivation, because it is a mark of moral immaturity.
This comparison is echoed later in the comparison of the soul to a multiform beast, where reason just barely controls the hydra-like heads of the appetites, and then only with the aid of a lion-like spirit c—d. What Came First, Religion or Morality? The fact that our morality surpasses that of other species makes it easier to assume it has supernatural origins.
He observed that those who have experienced both these and the lower pleasures, tend to prefer the former. Maimonides teaches that we do indeed have some access just as human beings to the rightness and wrongness of acts; but what renders conforming to these standards obligatory is that God reveals them in special revelation.
It is not clear whether the Nicomachean Ethics has a consistent view of the relation between the activity of contemplation and the other activities of a virtuous life see Hare, God and Morality, chapter 1, and Sarah Broadie, Ethics with Aristotle, chapter 7.
That is, it is possible that he could have made us to thrive and be fulfilled by ingesting gasoline, lying, and committing adultery. But as the late dialogues show, it took him quite some effort to develop the requisite conceptual tools for such analyses.
Moreover, on a theistic view of ethics, we have a reason to act in ways that run counter to our self-interest, because such actions of self-sacrifice have deep significance and merit within a theistic framework. That dialectic is geared to this end is somewhat obscured in the subsequent discussion in the Phaedrus.
Each of these includes several divisions. He told the audience that there are three main components of a good life: Jesus describes the paradigm of loving our neighbors as the willingness to die for them.
The sophists, to whom Socrates responded, rejected this tie between human law and divine law and this was in part because of their expertise in rhetoric, by which they taught their students how to manipulate the deliberations of popular assemblies, and so change the laws to their own advantage.
This, in turn, explains the development of his theory of recollection and the postulate of transcendent immaterial objects as the basis of reality and thought that he refers to in the Meno, and that he presents more fully in the Phaedo.
Definitions may be hopelessly vague or miss the mark entirely, which is to say that they may be either too wide, and include unwanted characteristics or subsets, or too narrow, and exclude essential characteristics.
It would be as wrong to commend blessedness as it would be to commend gods NE, a10—a For more on the topic of how religionists approach their chosen texts, see:Conclusion: Religion, Morality, and the Good Life ; That is, one might argue that if the motive for being moral on Divine Command Theory is to merely avoid punishment and perhaps gain eternal bliss, then this is less than ideal as an account of moral motivation, because it is a mark of moral immaturity.
God, Religion, and Morality. Morality has a long association with religion, and on most ethics panel there's a minister. So, it’s natural to ask whether morality essentially depends on God and religion. Albert Einstein Quotes Quotations on Philosophy, Physics, Religion, Science, Metaphysics, Humanity, War, Peace, Education, Knowledge, Morality and Freedom.
"Good God provides a spirited defense of the claim that morality requires God as its foundation. The authors provide powerful reasons for rejecting the usual philosophical objections to this view, and a strong case for the advantages of their view over secular rivals.
We cannot explain the importance of a good life except by noticing how creating a good life contributes to living well. We are self-conscious animals who have drives, instincts, tastes, and preferences. There is no mystery why we should want to satisfy those drives and serve those tastes.
But it can seem mysterious why we should want a life that is good in a more critical sense: a life we can. Morality (from Latin: mōrālis, lit. 'manner, character, proper behavior') is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person.Download